RDGY10110 Practice of Radiography 1 UCD Assignment Sample Ireland
The RDGY10110 Practice of Radiography 1 is a fundamental unit for anyone seeking to enter the radiologic sciences. Its purpose is to provide the student with the basic skills and knowledge necessary to perform radiographic examinations. The unit covers topics such as radiation safety, film quality, patient positioning, technical factors, and special procedures. In addition, students are given hands-on experience with different types of imaging equipment.
If you are interested in pursuing a career in radiography, this unit is an excellent place to start. It will give you a strong foundation on which to build your future studies. Additionally, the practical experience you gain in this unit will be invaluable as you begin your career.
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In this unit, we will go through some activities. These are:
Assignment Activity 1: Describe how to correctly undertake examinations of the upper and lower limb and pelvis areas using correct terminology.
When examining the limbs and pelvis, you should use the correct terminology to describe the positioning and movement of each body part. For example, when looking at the upper limb, you would use terms such as flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction. Here is a more detailed description of how to correctly undertake examinations of the upper and lower limbs and pelvis:
Examining the Upper Limb:
- To examine the shoulder joint, have the person extend their arm out to the side and then rotate it internally (so that their thumb points down). You should be able to see the head of the humerus in the shoulder socket.
- To examine the elbow joint, have the person bend their arm so that their hand is close to their shoulder. You should be able to see the ulna and radius in the elbow joint.
- To examine the wrist joint, have the person hold their arm out straight in front of them and then flex their wrist downwards. You should be able to see the bones in the wrist joint.
- To examine the hand, have the person hold their hand out palm up and then flex their fingers down. You should be able to see the bones in the hand.
Examining the Lower Limb:
- To examine the hip joint, have the person lie on their back with their legs straight. You should be able to see the head of the femur in the hip socket.
- To examine the knee joint, have the person bend their leg so that their foot is close to their buttock. You should be able to see the patella in the knee joint.
- To examine the ankle joint, have the person lie on their back with their legs straight and then flex their foot upwards. You should be able to see the talus in the ankle joint.
- To examine the foot, have the person lie on their back with their legs straight and then flex their toes downwards. You should be able to see the bones in the foot.
Examining the Pelvis:
To examine the pelvis, have the person lie on their back with their legs straight. You should be able to see the hip bones and the sacrum.
When examining any of these body parts, it is important to use the correct terminology to describe the positioning and movement. This will ensure that you are correctly identifying the structures you are observing.
Assignment Activity 2: Be able to describe key justification criteria for each radiographic examination.
Each radiographic examination should be justified by its potential to improve patient care. The key justification criteria for each radiographic examination are as follows:
Chest x-ray: Detects and diagnoses abnormalities in the lungs, such as pneumonia.
Ultrasound of the abdomen: Detects and diagnoses abnormalities in the abdominal organs, such as a tumor or an abscess.
CT scan of the head: Detects and diagnoses abnormalities in the brain, such as a tumor or an aneurysm.
MRI of the spine: Detects and diagnoses abnormalities in the spinal cord, such as a tumor or a herniated disk.
These are just some of the key justification criteria for various radiographic examinations. When ordering a radiographic examination, the clinician should always consider whether or not the potential benefits of the examination outweigh the risks.
Assignment Activity 3: Identify and explain appropriate projections for specific clinical indications for imaging.
For certain clinical indications, particular projections may be more appropriate. In general, benign lesions tend to be echogenic and well-circumscribed, while malignant lesions are often hypoechoic and have irregular borders. However, specific imaging characteristics will depend on the lesion in question. Lesiforme lesions, for example, can occur in both benign and malignant forms.
Appropriate imaging projections help to optimize image quality and should be tailored to each individual case. When selecting a projection, consideration must be given to the angle of incidence, patient positioning, the desired field of view, tissue density, and clicking sound (if applicable). Overlapping structures should also be taken into account; for instance, when visualizing the liver, it is important to avoid obscuring the view with the stomach.
In general, the following projections are considered appropriate for specific clinical indications:
Anteroposterior (AP) projection: Used to detect abnormalities in the lungs, such as pneumonia.
Lateral projection: Used to detect abnormalities in the abdominal organs, such as a tumor or an abscess.
Axial projection: Used to detect abnormalities in the brain, such as a tumor or an aneurysm.
Sagittal projection: Used to detect abnormalities in the spinal cord, such as a tumor or a herniated disk.
These are just some examples of appropriate projections for specific clinical indications.
Assignment Activity 4: Explain reasons for specific patient positioning, X-ray beam alignment, and exposure factors.
There are a variety of reasons why specific patient positioning, X-ray beam alignment, and exposure factors are important.
Patient positioning is important because it helps ensure that the target area is properly exposed to the X-ray beam. X-ray beam alignment is important because it ensures that the X-ray beam is properly directed at the target area. Exposure factors are important because they help determine the amount of radiation exposure that the patient will receive.
Improper patient positioning can result in suboptimal imaging or even missed diagnoses. In some cases, poor patient positioning can also lead to increased radiation exposure for the patient. Therefore, it is important to be aware of proper positioning techniques and to adjust the position as needed to ensure optimal imaging.
The following are some of the reasons why specific patient positioning, X-ray beam alignment, and exposure factors are important:
- To ensure that the target area is properly exposed to the X-ray beam.
- To ensure that the X-ray beam is properly directed at the target area.
- To help determine the amount of radiation exposure that the patient will receive.
- To minimize the risk of missed diagnoses.
- To minimize the radiation exposure for the patient.
Assignment Activity 5: Explain technical, patient, and pathological factors influencing preparation and choice of technique for projections of the appendicular area and trunk.
There are a number of factors that can influence the choice of projection technique for appendicular and trunk projections. Technical factors include the type of x-ray machine being used, the body part being imaged, and the desired level of detail. Patient factors include body habitus, size, and position. Pathological factors include the nature and stage of the disease. Let’s take a closer look at each of these considerations.
Technical factors to consider when choosing a projection for the appendicular area and trunk include:
- The specific anatomy you are trying to visualize. This will help determine which projection best suits your needs.
- The condition of the patient. If the patient is unable to hold still for long periods of time, then a quicker technique may be necessary.
- The availability of the equipment. Some hospitals may not have certain types of machines, so it is important to know what is available before making a decision.
Patient factors that need to be considered include:
- Age. Children and older adults may have difficulty remaining still during a longer projection.
- Weight. Heavier patients may require special positioning or a larger bed size in order to be imaged properly.
- Anatomy. Patients with larger body habitus may require special positioning in order to be imaged properly.
Pathological factors that need to be considered include:
- The nature of the disease. Some diseases, such as tumors, may require specific projections in order to be visualized.
- The stage of the disease. More advanced diseases may require more detailed imaging, which can be accomplished with different projection techniques.
Assignment Activity 6: Describe the correct methods for image appraisal criteria inclusive of addressing image quality and methods to improve such.
When appraising images, there are a few techniques that you can employ to get objective feedback. These include Image Quality Checklists, Contrast Variable Mappings, and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio.
Image quality checklists involve having a list of things to look for in an image (e.g. straight lines, colors, etc.), and then scoring the image out of 10 based on how many of those items are present. This can be useful for comparing different images, or for tracking the progress of your own image quality over time.
Contrast variable mappings is a technique whereby you map out how well an image displays at different contrast levels. This can help you to identify areas where the contrast could be improved.
The peak signal-to-noise ratio is a measure of how much noise is present in an image. A higher ratio indicates less noise and better image quality.
There are a few ways to improve image quality, such as:
- Using a higher quality x-ray machine
- Using a lower x-ray dose
- Improving the patient’s positioning
- Using a more appropriate projection technique
- Improving the image processing software
Assignment Activity 7: Appraise images of a variety of upper and lower limb and pelvis radiographs regarding anatomy, radiographic positioning, and key pathology.
Regarding anatomy, the radiographs appear to be of good quality and anatomically correct. Regarding radiographic positioning, it is difficult to comment without knowing which specific radiographs are being appraised. However, in general, good positioning is essential for the accurate interpretation of radiographs. Regarding key pathology, there appears to be evidence of various pathologies including fractures (e.g. tibia and fibula), joint disease (e.g. arthritis), and soft tissue injuries (e.g. muscle tears).
Assignment Activity 8: Use relevant peer-reviewed referral criteria for upper and lower limb and pelvis radiographic examinations.
Radiographic examinations are the key to diagnosing many conditions of the upper and lower limbs and pelvis. By using appropriate referral criteria, radiographers can ensure that patients receive the most appropriate care.
Some common referral criteria include the following:
- For suspected fractures: AP, lateral, and Merchant views of the affected bone.
- For suspected dislocations: anteroposterior and lateral views of the affected joint.
- For suspected soft tissue injuries: ultrasound or MRI as necessary.
- For suspected tumors or other pathologies: CT or MRI as necessary.
Assignment Activity 9: Demonstrate an understanding of the patient examination implications of specific clinical scenarios.
The patient examination is a critical component of the overall clinical process. In order to obtain an accurate assessment of a patient’s condition, it is important to consider all relevant information. This includes taking into account the specific clinical scenario in which the examination is being conducted. Various factors can impact the findings of a patient examination, and it is important to be aware of these implications in order to make an informed decision.
One key factor that can influence the findings of a patient’s examination is the type of complaint or symptoms that the patient is experiencing. For example, if a patient presents with shortness of breath, their lung function will be closely evaluated. Similarly, if a neck injury is suspected, the examiner will pay close attention to signs and symptoms of neurological impairment.
Another important factor to consider is the patient’s medical history. This can provide valuable information that can help to guide the examination. For example, a history of hypertension may lead the examiner to pay closer attention to the signs and symptoms of heart disease.
Other factors that can impact the findings of a patient examination include:
- The patient’s age
- The patient’s gender
- The patient’s lifestyle
- The patient’s occupation
By taking into account all of the relevant information, the examiner can obtain a more accurate assessment of the patient’s condition.
Assignment Activity 10: Locate normal and some abnormal anatomical appearances in relevant radiographs with accuracy and reasonable consistency.
There are a few things to keep in mind when looking at radiographs for abnormal anatomical appearances. First, you want to make sure that you are looking at the radiographs from the correct angle. Second, you want to be familiar with what normal anatomy looks like so that you can easily identify any abnormalities. And finally, keep in mind that not all abnormalities will be immediately obvious – sometimes it takes a careful examination to spot them.
Here are a few examples of normal and abnormal anatomical appearances in relevant radiographs:
Normal: The duodenum (first section of the small intestine) is an S-shaped loop that is located just behind the stomach. On a frontal (AP) radiograph, it should appear as a thin, curved line.
Abnormal: In this radiograph of the pelvis, there is an abnormal mass in the lower abdomen. This mass is most likely a tumor.
Normal: The bones of the spine should appear straight and parallel to each other.
Abnormal: In this radiograph of the spine, there are several abnormal curves. These curves are most likely due to scoliosis.
As you can see, abnormal anatomical appearances can be subtle or obvious. By familiarizing yourself with what normal anatomy looks like, you will be better equipped to identify any abnormalities.
Assignment Activity 11: Demonstrate an understanding of radiographic image appraisal inclusive of ways of improving diagnostic quality.
There are a number of ways to enhance the diagnostic quality of radiographic images. One way is to optimize the settings on the X-ray machine itself. This includes ensuring that the X-ray beam is aligned correctly and that the focus is set properly. Another way to improve image quality is proper patient positioning. Positioning techniques will vary depending on the type of imaging being performed (e.g., chest x-ray versus abdominal x-ray) but, in general, patients should be positioned such that the area of interest is as close to the center of the imaging field as possible.
Finally, attention to detail when taking the radiograph can also help improve diagnostic quality. This means taking care to ensure thatRadioactive material used in some medical imaging procedures can be harmful if not used properly. Therefore, it is important to understand how to safely handle and dispose of radioactive materials.
When radioactive material is used in a medical imaging procedure, it is important to keep track of the amount of radioactivity that is used. This information should be recorded in a logbook so that the total amount of radioactivity used can be monitored.
Radioactive material should only be handled by trained personnel who are aware of the risks involved. Personnel should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves and lead aprons when handling radioactive material.
After a medical imaging procedure is completed, all radioactive material should be properly disposed of in order to protect the public from exposure. Disposal methods will vary depending on the type of radioactive material involved. For example, liquid waste can be flushed down a sink, while solid waste must be placed in special containers.
Assignment Activity 12: Demonstrate appropriate practical methods of radiation protection for skeletal radiography and an understanding of the processes of justification and optimization.
There are two main types of radiation protection for skeletal radiography: justification and optimization. Justification means making sure that the benefits of the imaging procedure outweigh the risks. Optimization means taking steps to minimize the patient’s exposure to ionizing radiation during the procedure.
There are several practical methods of justification and optimization that can be used in skeletal radiography:
- Use the lowest possible x-ray dose that will produce an acceptable image quality.
- Use digital x-ray detectors instead of film/screen systems, which can reduce patient doses by up to 50%.
- Selecting techniques and magnifications that will produce the desired image while minimizing scatter radiation exposure to the patient.
- Use grid techniques to further reduce patient scatter radiation exposure.
- Use shielding to protect the patient from unnecessary exposure to x-rays.
All of these methods can help to reduce the patient’s exposure to ionizing radiation during a skeletal radiography procedure. By using justification and optimization techniques, the risks of the procedure can be minimized while still providing high-quality images.
Assignment Activity 13: Start to interact with patients via role play in the clinical skills lab.
There are a number of reasons why role-playing with patients can be beneficial for clinicians. First, it allows clinicians to practice the skills they have learned in a safe and controlled environment. Second, it gives clinicians the opportunity to receive feedback from their peers and instructors on how they performed specific interactions. Finally, it helps clinicians to build confidence in their abilities by allowing them to practice in a realistic setting.
Some tips for role-playing with patients in the clinical skills lab:
- Choose a scenario that you feel comfortable with and that is relevant to your clinical job.
- Make sure to read over the scenario ahead of time so that you are familiar with the details.
- Start by introducing yourself to the patient and telling them what you will be doing.
- Be sure to use proper medical terminology and keep your interactions professional.
- Take your time and focus on each step of the interaction.
- Ask for feedback from your peers or instructor after the role-play is over.
- Practice, practice, practice! The more you role-play, the more comfortable you will become.
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